Urartu

Urartu Inhaltsverzeichnis

Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, (urartäisch Biainili, assyrischKUR​Artaya KURURI akkadisch KURUraštu, biblisch vermutlich Ararat) war ein. Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, war ein altorientalisches Reich um den Vansee in Kleinasien, das sich später bis in das Urmia- und Sewanbecken sowie die Arax-Ebene ausbreitete. Urartu (9. Jh. bis 7. Jh. v. Chr.) Sprachcodes. ISO xur. Kaukasus (und Urartu). Ġambašije, I. Georgien - Schätze aus dem Land des goldenen Vlies, Katalog Bochum (Bochum); Giemsch, L. / Hansen, S. (Hrsg.)​. is devoted to archaeological and historical research in the area of the ancient near-eastern kingdom of "Biainili", better known by the Assyrian name "Urartu".

Urartu

Wasserbauten im Königreich Urartu und weitere Beiträge zur Hydrotechnik in der Antike Übersicht über Arbeiten und Grabungen im Gebiet des Königreiches. Urartu (9. Jh. bis 7. Jh. v. Chr.) Sprachcodes. ISO xur. Kaukasus (und Urartu). Ġambašije, I. Georgien - Schätze aus dem Land des goldenen Vlies, Katalog Bochum (Bochum); Giemsch, L. / Hansen, S. (Hrsg.)​.

Urartu Video

This impressive, isolated summit was in the Middle Ages called after the ancient kingdom: the Ararat , so well-known from the Biblical story about Noah note [ Genesis 8.

The people of Urartu, famous metalworkers, spoke a language that was related to Hurrian a language that has no other known connections , and they adapted a simplified Assyrian cuneiform script for their own purposes.

Scholars can read most inscriptions - although there are not many - and understand them: nearly all of these texts refer to the building activities of the Urartian kings.

This means that for a reconstruction of Urartian history we depend on Assyrian sources. It appears that from the second quarter of the early ninth century on, Urartu was ruled by a single dynasty, which expanded the kingdom to the south in a period when Assyria was weak.

The Euphrates became Urartu's western border; beyond that river, there were friendly contacts with Phrygia , another early state from the Iron Age.

However, Assyria recuperated and in BCE, the Armenian king Rusa was defeated by the Assyrian king Sargon, who marched almost unopposed through the country in the north and took possession of the statue of the Urartian supreme god Haldi.

The event is recorded in the Assyrian Eponym List. After this humiliation, Rusa refused to live and committed suicide. Through Trapezus , there were trade contacts with Greece, which explains why lions in Greek art of this period resemble the lions made by the sculptors from Urartu.

After a century of development, the fertile country had become a natural target for the nomads who lived north of the Caucasus known to the Greeks as " Scythians ", Sacae, Sakesinai, Cimmerians , and so on.

Archaeologists have discovered that many Urartian fortresses e. Arrowheads from a type known from modern Ukraine suggest that the Scythians were responsible for the destruction, although there are alternative explanations.

The problem is that our Assyrian sources come to an end at precisely this moment: the Babylonians and Medes captured Nineveh in BCE. Having suffered from the Scythian invasion, the country could have been an easy target for the Babylonians, but they appear to have been not interested.

It is more likely that Urartu was subject to some kind of Median supremacy, because in BCE, a Median army fought a battle at the river Halys in central Turkey against the Lydian king Alyattes.

This is only possible if the Medes had found a way to pass through Urartu. But for the reigns of his son Ishpuini c. The temple of Haldi at Ardini was richly endowed by the Urartian kings but was open to Assyrian worshipers.

It seems that the state religion received its established form at that time, and the hierarchy of the many gods in the Urartian pantheon is expressed by a list of sacrifices due them.

The first evidence of engineering projects, designed to increase the productivity of the home country by irrigation , dates to the reign of Meinua.

Under those kings, Urartu thrust out westward to the great bend of the Euphrates River and intermittently beyond, toward Melitene modern Malatya and the ancient Syrian district of Commagene , thus cutting off one of the main supply roads by which Assyria obtained essential iron from the western Taurus Mountains.

Argishti I subdued the Melitene Hilaruada c. For a short time Urartu thus had a bridgehead west of the Euphrates from Malatya to Halfeti ancient Halpa in Commagene, and its empire reached to within 20 miles 32 km of Aleppo in northern Syria.

Argishti and Sarduri also embarked on what was in the end to prove the most fruitful of all Urartian ventures: the conquest and subsequent agricultural exploitation of the regions across the Aras River.

Further advance to the northwest was checked by a new adversary, the kingdom of Qulha Greek: Colchis. The tens of thousands of prisoners taken on the yearly military campaigns in one year as many as 39, provided the manpower for intensive cultivation of the royal estates and processing of their crops.

Several times the Urartian kings of that period claimed, probably with justification, to have defeated Assyrian armies: Argishti reported victories over the Assyrians in his sixth and seventh regnal years, when he operated in the Zab and Lake Urmia areas; and Sarduri II defeated the Assyrian king Ashur-nirari V in the upper basin of the Tigris River about The period — saw the renewal of Assyrian expansion.

In spite of the support of a number of south Anatolian and north Syrian vassals, Sarduri II lost ground steadily, and in Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria — defeated him and his allies in Commagene near Halfeti.

In the metal-rich Taurus Mountains, the kingdom of Tabal remained a potential ally of Rusas I, as well as of the Phrygian king Midas of the legendary golden touch.

In the same year, Sargon began to close in on Urartu from the east. For two years, operations were mostly limited to western Iran.

There Assyria championed the interests of the kingdom of Manna , while Urartu aided and abetted Iranian tribes encroaching upon Manna from the east and north.

But behind the Urartian lines Assyrian intelligence officers were collecting information with a view to a much more-ambitious military undertaking against Urartu.

What finally tipped the scales in favour of Assyria was the opening up of a second front: the Cimmerians , a nomadic people from the Caucasus , invaded Urartu shortly before Perhaps Rusas I c.

In any case, Rusas soon found the Cimmerians at his borders. That encouraged Sargon to undertake the ambitious campaign of that put an end to the aspirations of the Urartian kings outside of their mountain homeland.

After unsuccessfully heading a coalition of his allies against Assyria, Rusas hastened back to Tuspha, which Sargon wisely did not try to besiege.

Sargon avoided a clash with the Cimmerians and instead plundered the main sanctuary of the Urartians at Ardini and carried off the statue of Haldi.

Hearing of that third calamity , Rusas committed suicide. But his son Argishti II c. The Urartians were finally overcome by a Median invasion late in the 7th century bce.

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Urartu: Das Reich am Ararat | Wartke, Ralf B | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. BIAINILI-URARTU (Acta Iranica, Band 51) | Gruber, C., Hellwag, U., Kroll, S. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und. Wasserbauten im Königreich Urartu und weitere Beiträge zur Hydrotechnik in der Antike Übersicht über Arbeiten und Grabungen im Gebiet des Königreiches. Piotrovsky interpretiert die Gürtel als Teil der Rüstung urartäischer Bogenschützen. Die Befestigungen wurden vor allem von Kriegsgefangenen errichtet. Beispiel eines Relativsatzes, die Verben sind in der Analyse fett hervorgehoben Urartu verwenden noch nicht ganz verstandene modale Formen, die vom Konjugationsmuster more info Indikativs abweichen:. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Die Urartäer selbst bezeichneten ihr Gebiet als Biai-nilidie Eigenbezeichnung der Sprache ist nicht bekannt. Dieser Artikel wurde am 2. Sie trägt meist braune oder schwarze geometrische Bemalung auf Sayisal Lotto Grund. Https://under35ceo.co/online-casino-book-of-ra-echtgeld/spielsucht-aachen.php Abweichungen von der urartäischen Form sind durch die spezielle Orthographie des Hieroglyphen-Luwischen bedingt. Ihre Urartu waren vermutlich nur klein. The contributions of this website are often written in German, sometimes in English. Pod koniec IX wieku p. Urartaean source and arrows. Diamond Spiele kingdom of Armenia: a history 2nd revised ed. Early modern age. The Urartians themselves called their country Biainili and their capital, located at modern VanTushpa Turushpa. Urartu Www Coolespiele De Rolle dieser Prinzen in der Verwaltung des Reiches ist unklar. Piotrovski schätzt ihre Kapazität auf Die Götter wurden, wie in Mesopotamien, mit Hörnerkrone dargestellt. Ihr Umriss war gewöhnlich rechteckig. Das Heer wurde vom König persönlich angeführt, assyrische Berichte nennen aber Beste Spielothek in FРґllbach turtanusalso Generäle. Momentan sind über bekannt. Begehungen im Urmia Gebiet konnten kleine Siedlungen von 0,15 bis Hektar erfassen. International Congress of Young Archaeologists, Oct. Die Siedlung wurde friedlich aufgegeben. Die Forschungsgeschichte von Urartu reicht bis zurück. Daily Sabah. Urartu topics. Scholars can read most inscriptions - although there are not many - and understand them: nearly all of these texts refer to the building activities of the Urartian kings. This may have been a Median or a Persian army. However, Assyria recuperated and in BCE, the Armenian king Rusa Urartu defeated by the Assyrian king Sargon, who marched almost unopposed through the country in the north and go here possession of the statue of the Urartian supreme god Haldi. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Urartu. Mallory, J.

Urartologist Paul Zimansky speculated that the Urartians or at least the ruling family may have emigrated northwest into the Lake Van region from their religious capital Musasir Ardini.

The written language that the kingdom's political elite used is retroactively referred to as Urartian , which is attested in numerous cuneiform inscriptions throughout Armenia and eastern Turkey.

It is unknown what language was spoken by the peoples of Urartu at the time of the existence of the Kingdom of Van, but there is evidence of linguistic contact between the proto-Armenian language and the Urartian language at an early date sometime between the 3rd—2nd millennium BC , occurring prior to the formation of the kingdom.

The latter term is considered problematic, however, as it is now thought that Urartian and Hurrian share a common ancestor rather than the previously held belief that Urartian developed directly from, or was a dialect of, Hurrian.

In short, the more we discover or deduce about the earliest stages of Hurrian, the more it looks like Urartian Gragg The Urartian language is an ergative - agglutinative language , which belongs to neither the Semitic nor the Indo-European language families , but to the Hurro-Urartian language family, which is not known to be related to any other language or language family, despite repeated attempts to find genetic links.

Examples of the Urartian language have survived in many inscriptions, written in the Assyrian cuneiform script, found throughout the area of the Kingdom of Urartu.

Although, the bulk of the cuneiform inscriptions within Urartu were written in the Urartian language, a minority of them were also written in Akkadian the official language of Assyria.

There are also claims of autochthonous Urartian hieroglyphs , but this remains uncertain. As a result, scholars disagree as to what language is used, or whether they even constitute writing at all.

The Urartians originally would have used these locally developed hieroglyphs, but later adapted the Assyrian cuneiform script for most purposes.

After the 8th century BC, the hieroglyphic script would have been restricted to religious and accounting purposes.

The Kingdom of Urartu, during its dominance, had united disparate tribes, each of which had its own culture and traditions.

Thus, when the political structure was destroyed, little remained that could be identified as one unified Urartian culture.

Far from being grounded on long standing cultural uniformities, [Urartu] was merely a superstructure of authority, below which there was plenty of room for the groups to manifest in the Anatolia of Xenophon to flourish.

We need not hypothesize massive influxes of new peoples, ethnic replacement, or any very great mechanisms of cultural change.

The Armenians, Carduchoi , Chaldaioi , and Taochoi could easily have been there all along, accommodated and concealed within the structure of command established by the Urartian kings.

Ultimately, little is known of what was truly spoken in the geopolitical region until the creation of the Armenian alphabet in the 4th century AD.

The presence of a population who spoke Proto-Armenian in Urartu prior to its demise is subject to speculation, but the existence of Urartian words in the Armenian language and Armenian loanwords into Urartian [71] suggests early contact between the two languages and long periods of bilingualism.

However, recent genetic research suggests that the Armenian ethnogenesis was completed by BCE, making the arrival of an Armenian-speaking population as late as the Bronze Age Collapse unlikely.

This intermixing would ultimately culminate in the emergence of the Armenian language as the dominant language within the region. A theory, supported by the official historiography of Armenia and experts in Assyrian and Urartian studies such as Igor M.

Diakonoff, Giorgi Melikishvili , Mikhail Nikolsky, and Ivan Mestchaninov, suggests that Urartian was solely the formal written language of the state, while its inhabitants, including the royal family, spoke Proto-Armenian.

This theory primarily hinges on the fact that the Urartian language used in the cuneiform inscriptions were very repetitive and scant in vocabulary having as little as — roots.

Furthermore, over years of usage, it shows no development, which is taken to indicate that the language had ceased to be spoken before the time of the inscriptions or was used only for official purposes.

A complementary theory, suggested by Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Ivanov in , places the Proto-Indo-European homeland the location where Indo-European would have emerged from in the Armenian Highlands, which would entail the presence of proto-Armenians in the area during the entire lifetime of the Urartian state.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Iron Age kingdom located in a large region around Lake Van.

Biainili [1]. Urartian Proto-Armenian [2]. Name People Language. Stone and Copper Age Shulaveri-Shomu culture c. Achaemenid period Satrapy of Armina — BC.

Middle Ages. Arabic period Emirate of Armenia — Early modern age. Perso - Ottoman period Iranian Armenia — Modern age. Independence First Republic of Armenia — This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Satrapy of Armenia. Further information: Origin of the Armenians. Main article: Economy of Urartu. Main article: Art of Urartu.

Main article: Urartian language. Main article: Proto-Armenian language. Asia portal. Annual of Armenian Linguistics. The kingdom of Armenia: a history 2nd revised ed.

Richmond: Curzon. The History of Ancient Iran. Munich: C. The real heirs of the Urartians, however, were neither the Scythians nor Medes but the Armenians.

The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell. However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians.

Armenia: Cradle of Civilization 3rd ed. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books, , p. Armenia: Cradle of Civilization.

London: Allen and Unwin, , p. Cornwall: Blackwell, , pp. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press.

Diakonoff, "The Pre-history of the Armenian People". Delmar, New York , p. The Ancient Civilization of Urartu. New York: Cowles Book Co.

Berlin: B. Behr, — Antiquities of the Jews. Translated by Whiston, William. Mental Systems, Inc. Retrieved 8 June Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary.

The Kingdom of Armenia: A History. Psychology Press. Annexation is a possibility and perhaps the Median conqueror was Cyaxares.

Alternatively, control remained very lose, and the end of Urartu as an independent kingdom should be dated a bit later, in , note [R.

This may have been a Median or a Persian army. Whatever the precise circumstances of the fall of Urartu, in the second half of the sixth century, Urartu was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire ; the satrap appears to have resided in a palace in Erebuni , modern Yerevan, where an apadana throne hall has been identified.

Urartu lived on as a satrapy, and later as an independent kingdom called Armenia. Urartaean helmet. Urartaean helmet with crest.

Urartaean goddess. Urartaean quiver and arrows. Urartaean seals. Urartaean bowl from Van-Rusahinili. The first century of the new kingdom seems to have emphasized military operations in imitation of Assyria , and Urartu waged relentless warfare on its neighbours to the east, west, and north.

For the reign of Sarduri I c. But for the reigns of his son Ishpuini c. The temple of Haldi at Ardini was richly endowed by the Urartian kings but was open to Assyrian worshipers.

It seems that the state religion received its established form at that time, and the hierarchy of the many gods in the Urartian pantheon is expressed by a list of sacrifices due them.

The first evidence of engineering projects, designed to increase the productivity of the home country by irrigation , dates to the reign of Meinua.

Under those kings, Urartu thrust out westward to the great bend of the Euphrates River and intermittently beyond, toward Melitene modern Malatya and the ancient Syrian district of Commagene , thus cutting off one of the main supply roads by which Assyria obtained essential iron from the western Taurus Mountains.

Argishti I subdued the Melitene Hilaruada c. For a short time Urartu thus had a bridgehead west of the Euphrates from Malatya to Halfeti ancient Halpa in Commagene, and its empire reached to within 20 miles 32 km of Aleppo in northern Syria.

Argishti and Sarduri also embarked on what was in the end to prove the most fruitful of all Urartian ventures: the conquest and subsequent agricultural exploitation of the regions across the Aras River.

Further advance to the northwest was checked by a new adversary, the kingdom of Qulha Greek: Colchis. The tens of thousands of prisoners taken on the yearly military campaigns in one year as many as 39, provided the manpower for intensive cultivation of the royal estates and processing of their crops.

Several times the Urartian kings of that period claimed, probably with justification, to have defeated Assyrian armies: Argishti reported victories over the Assyrians in his sixth and seventh regnal years, when he operated in the Zab and Lake Urmia areas; and Sarduri II defeated the Assyrian king Ashur-nirari V in the upper basin of the Tigris River about The period — saw the renewal of Assyrian expansion.

In spite of the support of a number of south Anatolian and north Syrian vassals, Sarduri II lost ground steadily, and in Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria — defeated him and his allies in Commagene near Halfeti.

In the metal-rich Taurus Mountains, the kingdom of Tabal remained a potential ally of Rusas I, as well as of the Phrygian king Midas of the legendary golden touch.

In the same year, Sargon began to close in on Urartu from the east. For two years, operations were mostly limited to western Iran.

There Assyria championed the interests of the kingdom of Manna , while Urartu aided and abetted Iranian tribes encroaching upon Manna from the east and north.

But behind the Urartian lines Assyrian intelligence officers were collecting information with a view to a much more-ambitious military undertaking against Urartu.

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